Alexis de Tocqueville

French sociologist and political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville (1805, one thousand eight hundred fifty-nine) traveled to the United States in 1831, to learn about his prison and returned with a lot broader observations that he zakadyfikavav in "Democracy in America" ​​(1835), probably 19 in the most important publications. Tocqueville's work, thanks to its clumsy observations of individualism and equality, remains a priceless cause of America for the Europeans and the Americans themselves.

Alexis de Tocqueville was born in 1805 in the aristocratic family members & # 39; and that not so long ago, at a loss for reasons of the French disasters. Both of his parents were imprisoned during the reign of terror. After a visit to the University in Mecca Tocqueville studied law in Paris and was appointed magistrate at Versailles, it was there that he met his future wife, and became friends with a lawyer nicknamed Gustave de Beaumont.

In 1830, Louis-Philippe, "a bourgeois monarchy", received the French throne, and the car & # 39; ernyya aspirations, from the pen of Tocqueville were temporarily blocked. Unable to move, he received permission to conduct Beaumont American system of criminal investigations, as well as in April 1831 they sailed to Rhode Island.

From Sing Sing to the woods of Michigan, from New Orleans to the White House, Beaumont and Tocqueville traveled for 9 months on ships, on highways, on horseback and by canoe, traveling in correctional institutions of America, and in many respects between them. In Pennsylvania Tocqueville put a week, choosing each inmate in a correctional facility eastern state. In Washington, DC, he attended President Andrew Jackson during the visit hours and exchanged pleasant pleasures.

The travelers returned to France in 1832. They quickly released its report "On the penitentiary system in the United States, as well as the application of France", written primarily Beaumont. Tocqueville decided to focus on a broader assessment of the American society and politics, published in 1835 as "Democracy in America."

As disclosed "Democracy in America," Tocqueville believed that equality – this is a great political and social thought of the era, and he believed that the United States provide the most complex instance of equality movement. American individualism admired him, but warned that human society can easily atamizavatstsa and ironic series, when "every citizen, simply digesting the rest, in fact, lost in the crowd." He felt that society people do not have the intermediate structures of society – such as, for example, the standard hierarchy – for mediation associations express. The effect can be democratic 'tyranny of the majority ", where specific rights have been violated.

Tocqueville was struck by many of that observed in the American way of life, admiring the balance of its economy and asking himself in making his churches. In addition, he observed the irony of ill-treatment of the nation with the Native Americans and its slavery.

In 1839, when he left the next volume of "Democracy in America," Tocqueville again moved into the political life, speaking to the deputies in the French Assembly. After pan-European revolutions of 1848, he briefly served as foreign minister of Louis Napoleon, before he was again expelled from politics, when he refused to help the coup d'etat of Louis Napoleon.

He retired to his family estate in Normandy and started to create the history of modern France, the first volume of which was published as the "Old regime and the French Revolution" (1856). He accused the French Revolution in the crisis of the nobility, as well as in the political frustration of the French public. Tocqueville's plans for further on & # 39; volumes were reduced his death from tuberculosis in 1859.